Title I at 50: Past, Present, and Future

elementary children raising their hands excitedly

The Title I program of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) was created to aid high-poverty schools in providing supplementary services to low-achieving students. Since then, Title I has changed considerably. Look back on how AIR has studied the policy and continues to examine its significance.

Supporting Students in Secure Care Through Title I, Part D (In the Field, 2019)

Educating students who have been neglected, delinquent, or are otherwise at-risk requires specialized training and careful collaboration across the agencies responsible for serving for these students; each state receives funding through Title I, Part D. AIR's Jennifer Loeffler-Cobia and Nicholas Read describe a study they conducted of Utah’s education and juvenile justice departments, and how they assisted the state in using evidence-based practices to transition delinquent kids back into the community safely.

Study of the Title I, Part A Grant Program Mathematical Formulas (Statistical Analysis Report, 2019)

This report provides information about how each component of the Title I funding formula affects the distribution of federal funds to states and school districts, including detailed analyses of each of the four Title I grant programs; alternative analyses that isolate components of each program; allocations adjusted by the American Community Survey-Comparable Wage Index; and a table of Title I total allocations by grant type and school district.

Evaluating Title I, Part D Funds and their Impact on Neglected and Delinquent Youth (Project)

Title I, Part D allocates funds to states and school districts to improve educational services for young people who are particularly vulnerable to academic failure, subsequent involvement in the justice or other social service systems, and sustained poverty. This study was designed to better understand how state and local agencies and facilities use Part D funds for services in support of youth who are neglected and delinquent. View the full report (2019) >>

Study of Title I Schoolwide and Targeted Assistance Programs: Final Report (Report, 2018)

The schoolwide program was created in 1978 to expand the flexibility of ESEA, allowing schools to use the Title I funds towards whole-school approaches that were aimed at improving the achievement of low-achieving students. This study focuses on the traditional targeted assistance program and the schoolwide program, comparing the services and resources they are able to provide using Title I funds and the processes they have in place for allocating these resources.

Title I at 50: A Retrospective (PDF Brief, 2015)

2015 marks the 50th anniversary of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Title I of that act made educational equity a federal priority by providing boy student raising his handfinancial assistance to local education agencies serving children of low-income families. This paper traces the history of the landmark federal program and provides background as Congress considers changes to Title I.

Title I: Revisited (Video Series)

In recognition of Title I's anniversary, AIR experts sat down to discuss the history, influence, and future of this important legislation. View the conversations on YouTube:

Title I: Where Policy Drives Equity (Blog Post, July 2015)

Since its passage 50 years ago, Title I has embodied the nation’s enduring commitment to educational equity and opportunity. The recently passed Senate reauthorization continues the $14 billion appropriation for Title I—nearly a tenth of all school funding and a remarkable federal investment in educational equity. Yet ultimately, Grant argues, Title I may be more influential as a policy vehicle than a funding stream.

Adjusted Poverty Measures and the Distribution of Title I Aid: Does Title I Really Make the Rich States Richer? (Report, 2013)

Are current funding allocations accurately distributing Title I funds? According to this report, published in the Association for Education Finance Policy journal, when fully adjusted for regional differences, Title I funding patterns disproportionately favor rural school districts in low cost of living states.

Title I Implementation: Update on Recent Evaluation Findings (Report, 2009)

This report provides a summary of findings from Title I evaluation studies that have become available after the publication of the National Assessment of Title I final report in 2007. The report includes findings from interviews with state education officials in all states, surveys of nationally representative samples of districts, principals, and teachers, data from consolidated state performance reports, and analyses of student achievement trends on state assessments and NAEP.

National Assessment of Title I: Interim Report (PDF Report, 2006)

Volume II: Closing the Reading Gap. This study is a large-scale, longitudinal evaluation consisting of an impact study of four remedial reading interventions and an implementation study of the interventions.