STEM Training and Early Career Outcomes of Female and Male Graduate Students: Evidence from UMETRICS Data Linked to the 2010 Census
Women are underrepresented in science and engineering, with the underrepresentation increasing in career stage. This article, from the May 2016 issue of American Economic Review, analyzes gender differences at critical junctures in the STEM pathway—graduate training and the early career—using UMETRICS administrative data matched to the 2010 Census and W-2s.
Data shows strong gender separation in teams, although the effects of this are ambiguous. While no clear disadvantages exist in training environments, women earn 10% less than men once a wide range of controls is included, most notably field of study. This gap disappears once controls are included for women's marital status and presence of children.