Vocational and Business Training to Improve Women’s Labour Market Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review
Although women’s labor market participation has improved markedly, evidence suggests that once in the labor market, women around the world still face limited opportunities. This systematic review summarizes evidence on the impacts of vocational and business training programs, and on the barriers to and facilitators of vocational and business training effectiveness for women of low- and middle-income countries. The review summarizes evidence from thirty-five quantitative studies with an experimental or quasi-experimental design. The review also provides an overview of the impact of 30 interventions, containing data from over 80,000 women. The qualitative narrative meta-synthesis includes findings from 50 studies.
The review found that vocational training had small positive effects on employment, formal employment, and earnings, while business training combined with other program components had positive effects on self-employment, as well as small positive effects on sales or profits. However due to how relatively small these effects are, they may be insufficient to justify scaling up vocational or business training programs.