State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act Volume VI - Targeting and Uses of Federal Education Funds (TRAC)
This report examines how well federal funds are targeted to districts and schools serving economically disadvantaged students, how Title I targeting has changed over the past seven years, how districts have spent federal funds, and the base of state and local resources to which federal funds are added. The report covers six federal programs: Title I, Part A; Reading First; Comprehensive School Reform (CSR); Title II, Part A; Title III, Part A; and Perkins Vocational Education State Grants. The report uses data on federal program allocations from all states, as well as data from a nationally representative sample of 300 school districts on federal program allocations and expenditure data for the 2004-05 school year.
Key findings include: Federal education funds were more strongly targeted to high-poverty districts than were state and local funds. However, the higher level of federal funding in high-poverty districts was not sufficient to close the funding gap between high- and low-poverty districts. The overall share of Title I funds going to the highest-poverty districts and schools changed little between 1997-98 and 2004-05, and the highest-poverty schools continued to receive smaller Title I allocations per low-income student than did the lowest-poverty schools. Schools that were identified for improvement were more likely to receive Title I funds than non-identified schools, but they received smaller allocations per low-income pupil. Most funds for the six federal programs in this study were used for instruction and instructional support.