To respond to the growing need to understand this concept better, this chapter focuses on several aspects of situation awareness. The operationalization and the appropriate measurement of the construct has implications for the establishment of sound experimental methodologies to identify the critical components of situation awareness, determine its relationship with performance, and explore the critical moderators that can potential affect this relationship. The objectives of this effort are to review and synthesize the relevant literature on situation awareness, including various descriptions of what constitutes situation awareness and the background information on the cognitive variables that underlie this construct.
In this article, we examine situation awareness (SA) on two levels. First, we briefly summarize some elements that are common to several of the proposed explanations of individual SA in order to provide a base for examining team SA. Second, we identify critical variables that are associated with team SA and describe processes and behaviors that have been proposed as contributors to its establishment and maintenance. On the basis of the information reviewed, we identify issues related to the measurement and training of team SA.
Because the development of skill-based coordination training is dependent on the accurate identification of crucial behaviors to be trained, and because there is a need to develop more effective methods to identify these skills, the purpose of this investigation was to identify a psychometrically sound index of team task importance to guide the selection of behaviors for training.
Computer games have the capacity to engage the player, are inexpensive, and are readily available. These three qualities suggest possible value as a training medium, even though existing aviation game software has not been designed specifically for training or crew interactions. Reactions of pilots participating in this research indicated that the use of computer games with carefully designed scenarios can be an acceptable means of training CRM skills. Aircrews seemed to appreciate the training value of the system and became engaged in its scenarios. Acceptance was found by aviators of all experience levels.
The intent of most employment equity analyses is to determine what the treatment of a protected group of employees would have been in the absence of discrimination. To be valid, those analyses have to take into account any legally relevant differences between the protected employees and a comparison group of employees.