The purpose of this study was to assess the relative effectiveness of different approaches to debriefing team performance: team debrief with videotape, team debrief without videotape, instructor debrief with videotape, and instructor debrief without videotape. We hypothesized that the four approaches would not be equally effective. However, the lack of consensus in the literature made it impossible to hypothesize whether team- vs. instructor-led debriefs would be more effective. Based on our personal experience, we hypothesized that debriefings which incorporate videotape would be perceived as more effective than those which did not.
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Over the years, the FAA has partnered with industry to develop programs for reporting, classifying, and analyzing safety-related data, but none has been able to integrate data from multiple sources. We are developing a generalized Human Factors taxonomy for classifying de-identified ASAP incident reports, AQP performance ratings, and FOQA output. Eventually this taxonomy will be embedded into a series of searchable computer databases that speak a common language, allowing the search for trends.
This review—which summarizes the state-of-the art in aviation error reporting, classification, and analysis—serves as the foundation for our future taxonomic research.
To respond to the growing need to understand this concept better, this chapter focuses on several aspects of situation awareness. The operationalization and the appropriate measurement of the construct has implications for the establishment of sound experimental methodologies to identify the critical components of situation awareness, determine its relationship with performance, and explore the critical moderators that can potential affect this relationship. The objectives of this effort are to review and synthesize the relevant literature on situation awareness, including various descriptions of what constitutes situation awareness and the background information on the cognitive variables that underlie this construct.
In this article, we examine situation awareness (SA) on two levels. First, we briefly summarize some elements that are common to several of the proposed explanations of individual SA in order to provide a base for examining team SA. Second, we identify critical variables that are associated with team SA and describe processes and behaviors that have been proposed as contributors to its establishment and maintenance. On the basis of the information reviewed, we identify issues related to the measurement and training of team SA.