This study examined NAEP testing conditions in schools and investigated whether being assessed in less than optimal testing conditions is associated with lower student achievement on the assessments.
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This paper considers three alternative approaches to setting performance standards (the predictive, the international benchmark, and the baseline normative approaches) and hybrid approaches that combine features across these three.
The reading and mathematics measures of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) have been, and continue to be, reported on scales that appear to have the properties of “cross-grade” scales. The conclusion of this essay will be that evidence can and should be assembled to support, and make more precise, certain interpretations, while others interpretations should be discouraged.