This paper addresses statistical aspects of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. One of the goals of this paper is to further the discussion on how gaps in performance might be defined and to offer candidate gap estimators. Each of the candidate definitions of gap given will be evaluated with respect to three quantitative measures of student performance derived from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).
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The purpose of this simulation was to assess the improvements in standard errors of estimates that could be expected if students participating in NAEP were pre-assigned to test booklets that were adapted to their level of performance based on their state assessment scores.
This study estimated the potential bias from "worst-case" scenarios of selective non-participation in NAEP, and examined the extent to which statistical methods can correct for that bias.